The beginnings of the museum in Kragujevac can be linked to more data from the first half of the 19th century. Prince Milos began to form his collection of paintings in June 1823, when he received the first art painting as a gift. In 1837, the prince received the first collection of minerals from the German naturalist Baron Herder, and sources also point to the first numismatic collection.
After more than a century during the occupation, in the spring of 1942, the Sumadija Museum in Kragujevac was founded, which ceased to operate on March 22, 1943.
Today's National Museum in Kragujevac was founded on June 1, 1949 as the Regional Museum with three workers and 872 items in six collections: natural history, history, archeology, numismatics, ethnology and art. Amidzin konak (built in 1818 when Prince Milos moved from Crnuca and formed a court in Kragujevac) and Knez Mihail's konak (intended for Prince Mihail's court in 1868) were designated as museum buildings. The museum was ceremoniously opened on July 8, 1951, and at the beginning of 1953 it changed its name to the National Museum of Kragujevac. The competence of the Museum included 11 municipalities on the territory of Sumadija, Pomoravlje and Raska area. With the formation of other museum centers, the activities of the Museum were reduced only to Sumadija. By order of the District People's Committee, in June 1958, in addition to the NOR department, which is still operating, the Museum is being "conserved". March 1961 year, the Supervisory Board of the Municipality of Kragujevac makes a decision on the establishment of a new museum called "Museum of the Workers' Movement and the National Liberation War". Both museums have existed for two years in parallel, and in March 1963 they merged into one - the National Museum of Kragujevac.
In 1976, objects, photographs and documents related to the shooting in Kragujevac in 1941 were given to the newly formed museum "Memorial Park October 21".
The National Museum in Kragujevac is a cultural institution, it belongs to the category of complex museums of local character whose activity is collecting, studying, professional and scientific processing, protection and presentation of cultural goods, which it performs in the municipalities of Kragujevac, Batocina, Lapovo, Raca and Knic.