The Museum of Contemporary Art of the Republic of Srpska (MSURS), initially called the Art Gallery, was founded in 1971, following the campaign of solidarity of Yugoslav and international fine artists launched after Banja Luka was struck by a massive earthquake in 1969. In the campaign, artists sent works of art as gifts to help the devastated city, which laid the foundation for the Gallery and formed the core of its collection. In 1981, the Gallery moved to the historic building of the old Banja Luka railway station, built in 1891.
Following a decision of the Government of the Republika Srpska on 10 February 2004, the Gallery was renamed the Museum of Contemporary Art of the Republic of Srpska and made a central museum at the Republic level, allowing it to refocus its efforts to support the development of regional contemporary art. The purpose of the MSURS is collecting, studying and presenting contemporary art practices, and its work is largely based on collaborating with related international organisations, which allows it to keep abreast of the latest trends in art and promote them locally. These activities of the MSURS have given rise to a vivid and dynamic contemporary art scene, whose achievements have been recognised internationally.